history_of_electromagnetism

Stan Zurek, History of electromagnetism, Encyclopedia Magnetica, E-Magnetica.pl |

**History of electromagnetism** - this page is a collection of important discoveries in the history of electromagnetism, ranging from electrostatics, through magnetostatics, to electromagnetics, waves and optic.

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1064 - Discovery that iron quenched from red hot acquires magnetization by Zheng Gongliang (China)^{4)} |

1088 - Navigational compass invented by Shen Kua (China)^{5)} |

1190 - Compass construction described by Alexander Neckam (England)^{6)} |

1269 - Polarity of magnetic poles described by Pierre de Maricourt (also known as Peter Peregrinus)^{7)} |

1600 - Movement of compass needle and Eearth's magnetic field described by William Gilbert^{8)} who also proposed the word “electric”^{9)}, see also: gilbert |

1743 - Horseshoe magnet invented by Daniel Bernoulli (Switzerland)^{10)} |

1745 - Method of reliable magnetisation of steel developed by Gowin Knight (England)^{11)} |

1745 - Leyden jar (first capacitor) invented by Pieter van Musschenbroek and Ewald von Kleist^{12)} |

1747 - Existence of positive and negative electric charges proposed by Benjamin Franklin^{13)} |

1750 - Inverse-square law governing forces between poles discovered by John Michell (England)^{14)} |

1785 - Coulomb's law of electrostatic forces formulated by Charles-Augustine de Coulomb (France)^{15)} |

1786 - Twitching of frog's leg by electricity studied by Luigi Galvani (Italy)^{16)}, see also: galvanic |

1800 - Electric battery invented by Alessandro Volta (Italy)^{17)}, see also: volt |

1820 - Magnetic field around a wire with electric current discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted^{18)}, see also: oersted |

1820 - Magnetic force between two wires with current demonstrated by André-Marie Ampère^{19)}, see Ampere's law and ampere |

1820 - Magnetic force due to current calculated by Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart^{20)}, see Biot-Savart law |

1821 - Principle of electric motor discovered by Michael Faraday^{21)}, see also: farad |

1824 - Iron-cored electromagnet invented by William Sturgeon^{22)} |

1825 - Compass needle rotating above spinning copper disc demonstrated by Francois Arago^{23)} |

1826 - Galvanometer invented by Johann Christian Poggendorff^{24)} |

1827 - Ohm's law proposed by Georg Ohm^{25)} |

1830 - powerful practical electromagnet (lifting over 900 kg) created by Joseph Henry^{26)}, see also: henry |

1831 - Electromagnetic induction and transformer discovered by Micheal Faraday^{27)}, see Faraday's law |

1831 - practical DC motor invented by Joseph Henry^{28)} |

1834 - Lenz's law formulated by Emil Lenz^{29)} |

1834 - Horizontal motor invented by Moritz von Jacobi^{30)} |

1842 - Magnetostriction discovered by James Joule^{31)}, see also: joule |

1845 - The name “magnetic field” introduced by Michael Faraday^{32)} |

1869 - Periodic table of elements created by Dimitri Mendeleev^{33)} |

1873 - All equations of electromagnetism first summarised by James Clerk Maxwell^{34)}, see Maxwell's equations |

1879 - Hall effect for negative charges discovered by Edwin Herbert Hall^{35)} |

1881 - The name “hysteresis” is proposed (and the phenomenon studied in iron) by James Ewing^{36)} |

1882 - Vector notation and analysis proposed by Oliver Heaviside and Josiah Willard Gibbs^{37)} |

1885 - Maxwell's equations rationalised to just four by Oliver Heaviside^{38)} |

1886 - first DC current motor invented by Frank Julian Sprague^{39)} |

1887 - Magnetic potentiometer described by A.P. Chattock^{40)} |

1890 - Right-hand and left-hand rules proposed by John Ambrose Fleming^{41)} |

1892 - Theory of the electron published by Hendrik Lorentz^{42)} |

1894 - The word “electron” proposed by G.J. Stoney^{43)} |

1895 - X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen^{44)} |

1896 - Radioactivity discovered by Henri Becquerel^{45)} |

1896 - Rotational loss measured by Francis Gibson Baily^{46)} |

1897 - Electron discovered by Joseph John Thomson^{47)} |

1900 - Magnetic domains (initially called “molecular groups”) proposed by James Ewing^{48)} |

1905 - Thermionic valve (first diode) patented by John Ambrose Fleming^{49)} |

1905 - Photon and photoelectric effect described by Albert Einstein^{50)} |

1906 - Theory of ferromagnetism proposed by Pierre Weiss^{51)} |

1909 - Charge and mass of electron measured by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher^{52)} |

1911 - Atomic nucleus discovered by Ernest Rutherford^{53)} |

1911 - Superconductivity in mercury discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes^{54)} |

1911 - Proton discovered by Ernest Rutherford^{55)} |

1916 - Rogowski coil patented by Walter Rogowski^{56)} |

1919 - Barkhausen noise discovered by Heinrich Barkhausen^{57)} |

1925 - Electron spin discovered by George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit^{58)} |

1931 - Existence of magnetic monopoles proposed by Paul Dirac^{59)} |

1932 - Neutron discovered by James Chadwick^{60)} |

1934 - Method for producing grain-oriented electrical steel patented by Norman P. Goss^{61)} |

1935 - Principles of domain theory established by Lev Landau and Evgenii Lifschitz^{62)} |

1936 - Powder material Sendust invented by Hakaru Masumoto^{63)} |

1955 - Needle probes (for measuring flux density) patented by Ernst Czeija and Robert Zawischa^{64)} |

1967 - Ferromagnetic amorphous alloy demonstrated by Pol Dowez and S.C.H. Lin of California Institute of Technology^{65)} |

1980 - Quantum Hall effect discovered by Klaus von Klitzing^{66)} |

1984 - Neodymium magnets invented independently by M. Sagawa, S. Fujimura, N. Togawa, H. Yamamoto, Y. Matsura of Sumitomo Special Metals Company, and J. J. Croat, J. F. Herbst, R. W. Lee, F. E. Pinkerton of General Motors Research Laboratories^{67)} |

1988 - Nanocrystalline material invented by Yoshihito Yoshizawa, Shigeru Oguma, and Kiyotaka Yamauchi of Hitachi Metals^{68)} |

history_of_electromagnetism.txt · Last modified: 2021/06/06 16:15 by stan_zurek

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